The 1860 US Census was used to create this map of the slave population in the South.  Lincoln and others followed the liberartion of territory and slaves as the Civil War progressed.  The destruction of the South's labor force was a key war aim of the North.  

 

This map was created by the US Coast Guard.  A copy of the 16 MB jpg file of the map can be found at the Library of Congress Maps.

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